JavaScript Programming Language

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JavaScript, a dynamic and admittedly complex programming language, is the most popular programming language in the world and most commonly used in Web browsers to display the content of Web pages.

JavaScript (JS) is not to be confused with Java, which is another programming language with very different functions. JavaScript is an object-orientated language, which is commonly used to create interactive effects within Web browsers. If JavaScript is not enabled in your browser, you may notice that it impairs the functionality of many websites when you visit them. 
 
Most people who use the Internet are familiar with JavaScript, even if you've yet to realize it. If you're filling out a form online and each field validates as you type, this is JavaScript at work. JavaScript allows the website to provide immediate feedback, such as when the user makes a typo, using code to create menus, validate forms, and swap images. JavaScript can also be used to create animations and provide responses and live updates without the need to reload the Web page.
 
Without JavaScript, Web pages would be quite static and require frequent refreshing in order for new elements to appear. JavaScript improves the user's experience by making it interactive and dynamic.
 
In reality, JavaScript is quite an easy scripting language to learn and can be used in the creation of applications for smartphones as well as interactive features in Web browsers. However, it is pretty much required that users have at least some familiarity with HTML and CSS to use JavaScript, as they work together.
 
JavaScript can be used in technology and computing classes to create Web-based applications, games and interactive features. It is an incredibly useful and fun language for students to learn, as it underpins many of the familiar features of the Web that we use every day.
What is JavaScript?
Joe Chellman from video2brain's course, Getting Started with JavaScript Programming, explains what JavaScript is and what it does in this free lesson.
JavaScript Overview
Mozilla Developer's Network (the makers of the Firefox Web browser) share this useful beginner's guide to JavaScript. Mozilla Foundation are the official managers of JavaScript.
JavaScript FAQs
This comprehensive FAQ from Javascripter.net covers every aspect of JavaScript, from general overviews to very technical guides.
JavaScript Basics Part 1
This introductory series from HTMLGoodies explains what JavaScript can do, and how to start using it.
JavaScript - General Introduction
In this detailed "Getting Started" guide from QuirksMode, find out how you can begin using JavaScript.
JavaScript & jQuery - Getting Started
This is a beginners introduction to JavaScript and jQuery (a JavaScript library of code). It assumes some knowledge of HTML and CSS, which are covered in earlier, linked tutorials.
Why Is There No Official JavaScript Reference?
This useful discussion from Stack Overflow explains why there is no official JavaScript reference (Mozilla's guides are the closest thing). JavaScript works differently according to each browser, so there is no centralized reference.
Codecademy: JavaScript Lesson 1 - Choose Your Own Adventure
This video from TheCodeAcademy introduces a "choose your own adventure" project on Codecademy.com to get started with JavaScript.
To-Do App
Learn how to create a simple to-do list application using Javascript in this tutorial from Parse.
Calculator
In this project from Code Project, suitable for beginners with some knowledge of JavaScript, HTML and CSS, learn how to create a simple responsive calculator.
Windows Store App
Use this tutorial from Microsoft to learn how to create a simple app using HTML and Javascript.
Web Projects (Various)
This series of web projects from Codecademy progress from a beginner's to an advanced level, including actions such as creating web forms and making video games. You need to sign up with Codecademy (for free) to view and interact with the project.
Minesweeper Game
In this advanced project from Tech Republic, learn how to create a version of the popular game Minesweeper using JavaScript.
Should all kids learn to code?
An interesting article from Great Schools on whether kids should learn a programming language as a 'second language'.
Awesome JavaScript Projects to Watch on Github
A collection of links to some of the most interesting and creative uses of JavaScript on Github, from photo viewers to timeline tools.
14-Year-Old Prodigy Programmer Dreams in Code
This incredible video interviews 14-year-old, Santiago Gonzalez, who is a genius programmer and software developer.
42 Top Examples of JavaScript
Creative Bloq picks some wonderful and creative uses of JavaScript, from great website designs to interactive maps.
This 12-year-old kid learned to code on Codecademy, built five apps, and is speaking at SXSW
Venture Beat covers the story of 12-year-old, Ethan Duggan, who taught himself to code and build apps.
Coding Camps for Kids Rise in Popularity
An Associated Press report on the increasingly popular phenomenon of coding camps for kids.
Creative JS: The very best of JavaScript and HTML5.
Creative JS links to some of the most innovative uses of JavaScript in projects from around the Web.
Language Forks Bring New Power to Programming
Like any other language, computer languages are constantly evolving. Find out about totally new languages as well as “forks” in Javascript, among others.
Learning Web Design: A Beginner's Guide to HTML, CSS, JavaScript & Web Graphics. By Jennifer Niederst Robbins
This beginner's guide to Web design, written by one of the world's first designers, starts from the very basics and builds up to the point where you can create your own Web page using HTML, CSS and JavaScript. Also available as an E-Book.
3D Game Programming for Kids: Create Interactive Worlds With JavaScript. By Chris Strom
This kids guide to JavaScript takes a fun approach to programming, with instructions that will allow you to create your own in-browser games.
JavaScript & jQuery (series)
This series of video tutorials from tutor4u is a progressive introductory course in using JavaScript and the jQuery library to create interactive Web features.
Codecademy - Introduction to JavaScript
Learn JavaScript as a total beginner with Codecademy's free, interactive online course.
Code Avengers - JavaScript Lessons
Code Avengers, rivals to Code Academy, provide a similarly focused free online course in JavaScript, comprised of short lessons and tasks.
Google Code Jam 2015
This international programming competition runs from March to August every year, and is based on a round format. Programmers compete in four online rounds to solve algorithmic puzzles, leading to an on-site final at Google's headquarters in Los Angeles. Students aged 13 years or older are eligible to compete, although entrants must be at least...
Google Summer of Code
Google Summer of Code is an initiative that provides a stipend to 13-17 year old students from across the world to pursue open-source coding projects. If you apply and your project is approved, you will be mentored through the program. Student registration is closed for 2015, but this is an annual event. From May 25, 2015 to August 31, 2015 Onlin...
Introducing D3.js
Find out more about D3.js, the foremost Javascript library for visualizing data in a Web browser, in this free webinar from Stephen Thomas of the O'Reilly Community. From July 29, 2015 to July 29, 2015 Online
InnEdCo 2015
Innovation Education Colorado's conference focuses on education in the digital age, specifically targeted at K-12 educators. From June 23, 2015 to June 25, 2015 Colorado Springs, CO
TIE Conference 2016
Technology and Innovation in Education's conference mixes keynote presentations and in-depth discussions on key issues in education technology. From April 10, 2016 to April 12, 2016 Sioux Falls, SD
jQuery Code Library
The jQuery code library has been developed to address common issues with JavaScript's interaction with web browsers. It is versatile and extensible, and improves JavaScript's usability.